Avoidable flaws in observational analyses: an application to statins and cancer


The increasing availability of large healthcare databases is fueling an intense debate on whether real-world data should play a role in the assessment of the benefit–risk of medical treatments. In many observational studies, for example, statin users were found to have a substantially lower risk of cancer than in meta-analyses of randomized trials. Although such discrepancies are often attributed to a lack of randomization in the observational studies, they might be explained by flaws that can be avoided by explicitly emulating a target trial (the randomized trial that would answer the question of interest).

Nature Medicine